Culture du Cameroun

Posté le 11 août 2016 par Franck WAMBA dans Non classé

Diversité ethnique

Culture du Cameroun 220px-Cameroon

Groupes ethniques du Cameroun : il ne s’agit pas des ethnies au sens strict mais des grands ensembles.

Le Cameroun compte des centaines de royaumes traditionnels (Bodjongo’a Mbèdi, Akwa-Nord,Bali-nyonga, Bafut, Bafoussam, Foumban…) pour la plupart concentrés dans le littoral, le nord et l’ouest du pays. Ce sont de véritables entités indépendantes dont Bodjongo’a Mbèdi dans le littoral fait l’exception car sa dynastie royale remonte au-delà du Xe siècle et la plupart des autres fondées pour certaines au XVIe siècle. Organisées autour de la figure emblématique du leader ou du chef qui exerce son pouvoir dans le cadre d’un système très hiérarchisé où gravitent épouses, adjoints, notables qui sensibilisent les enfants aux rites ancestraux, des dignitaires qui récoltent les herbes et racines dans les forêts sacrées pour les sociétés secrètes, des serviteurs dévoués, des artistes peintres, des sculpteurs et des groupes d’adolescents qui constituent des gardes structurées.

Ces entités tribales ont un rôle essentiel et fondamental dans la vie culturelle, politique et sociale du pays en soutenant les populations locales pour les créations d’activités, et contre la pauvreté, la maladie, le chômage, sollicitant aux uns et aux autres des capitaux pour la construction d’une école, d’un dispensaire ou d’une pompe à eau.

Langues

Article détaillé : Langues au Cameroun.

On recense au Cameroun plus de 250 dialectes assimilés aux langues nationales, parmi lesquelles on trouve le Doualais, l’Ewodi, le Yabassi, le Bodiman, le Tikar, le Pongo, l’Abo, le Balimba, le Bamoun, l’Ewondo, le Bassa, le Bakweri, le Bulu, le Peul ou Foulbé, le Haoussa, les langues Bamiléké composées de plusieurs sous-ensembles comme le Fe’efe’, Nufi ou Bafang, le Ghomala’ (Baham, Bandjoun, Batié, Bansoa, Bandenkop), le Medumba (Bangangté), le Yemba (Dschang), le Ngomba’a (Bamesso)… et bien d’autres.

Contrairement à la majorité des autres pays africains, le Cameroun n’a pas de langue nationale dominante ou commune. Cependant, la jeunesse urbaine a créé une forme d’argot complexe dit camfranglais (mélange de français, d’anglais, de locutions vernaculaires camerounaises et même du verlan) qui varie selon les villes. L’on s’exprime en « pidjin » un mélange d’anglais et d’argot. Quant aux commerçants, ils négocient très souvent en pidjin english (forme de créole anglais) depuis plus de 50 ans.

220px-Bamileke_dancers

Danseurs Bamiléké

En ce qui concerne les langues officielles, l’anglais et le français sont les deux langues de l’administration, de l’enseignement et des médias. Ce bilinguisme est un héritage de la colonisation, et permet au Cameroun de faire à la fois partie du monde francophone et anglophone. Malgré tout, le français est largement avantagé dans l’administration et les médias, par le fait de la majorité démographique des francophones. Certains anglophones se plaignent de discrimination à l’égard de leur langue que des francophones (adultes) n’assimilent pas souvent mais qui est étudiée par tous les enfants dans toutes les écoles. Cependant, le bilinguisme est de plus en plus renforcé et tous les documents publics lus ou écrits sont en deux langues. De plus, 4 des 6 universités publiques sont bilingues et une est entièrement anglophone (University of Buea). De nombreuses écoles primaires et lycées bilingues existent sur l’ensemble du territoire

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